S = bed slope . The cost of construction of channel is minimum when it passes maximum discharge for its given cross sectional area. The approach presented is more general than the conventional methods given in the textbooks. Ei = irrigation efficiency including conveyance efficiency of canal or ditch (percent). The possible cross sections are parameterized by at most two variables, so the calculations do not require the use of sophisticated optimization methods or large computers. the design variables of minimumearthwork cost canal sections for triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal, and circular shapes have been obtained by applyingnon-linear optimization technique. Design of Canals / The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The section to be adopted should be economical and at the same time it should be functionally efficient. The significant discrepancy between the results obtained for constant and variable roughness scenarios demonstrates the necessity for considering roughness coefficient variability with water depth in circular sections. Example12.1: Compute the mean velocity and discharge for a depth of flow of 0.30 m from a lined trapezoidal channel of 0.6 m wide and side slope of 1.5 horizontal : 1 vertical. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. 1. The developed program considers the flow being uniform and based on the production of many probable cross-sections and selects only the optimum one according to the constraints and ratios of the priority order of the targets specified in advance by the user. 2. Because the design variables themselves are unknown, such relationships cannot be applied directly. Open Channel is a passage through which water flows and has upper surface exposed to atmosphere. Furthermore, the methods are based on Manning's equation, which is valid for a hydraulically rough boundary having a narrow range of relative roughness and involves a roughness coefficient having awkward dimensions. (ii) Channel Dimensions: The channel dimensions can be obtained using uniform flow formula, which is given by, Q = A V (12.3), A = cross-sectional area of canal perpendicular to flow (m2). The optimum values for the section variables, such as channel side slope, bottom width, and water depth for trapezoidal, rectangular and triangular channels are found by the computer program using an embedded optimization process that considers imposed limitations/constraints on the previously mentioned variables as well as other variables such as the velocity and top width. The comparison remarkably demonstrates that the applied artificial intelligence (AI) models achieved much closer results to the numerical benchmark solutions than the available explicit equations for optimum design of lined channels with trapezoidal, rectangular and triangular sections. The specific energy is the total energy at any cross section with respect to channel bed. Open channel design involves determining cross-section dimensions of the channel for the amount of water the channel must carry (i.e., capacity) at a given flow velocity, slope and, shape or alternatively determining the discharge capacity for the given cross-section dimensions. A novel variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO), referred to as Fish Shoal Optimization (FSO), is developed to add an additional capability to its ancestor PSO to handle concurrently three different types of stones for the design of minimum cost earthen canals whose side slopes are riprap riveted and bottom is unlined with the most suitable type of stone. and partly by filling above N.S.L. The optimal cost equation along wi, were obtained for various types of linings and the soil strata. For this purpose, the problem statement is treated as an optimization problem whose objective function and constraint are earthwork and lining costs and Manning's equation, respectively. In general, the cost of earthwork varies with canal depth. Discharge should be maximum Types of channels based on shape: 1. Velocity is computed by Manning’s formula or Chezy formula. The proposed methodology incorporates elements of the water section and the above-water section, and is applicable to both lined and unlined canals. Solving a typical design problem in the literature by the proposed equation showed not only its adequate performance but also the necessity for considering variable roughness in circular channels design procedure. The principle of design of flumes and hydraulic structures (open drop and chute spillways) is based on the concept of specific energy and critical flow. The cost of construction of a channel depends on depth of excavation and construction for lining. It allowed interaction of dissimilar species of shoal – the social characteristic of PSO and stiff competition – a feature of Genetic Algorithms, among their own and other groups’ members to yield the minimum cost design of canals having symmetric shape and angular particles as the most suitable revetment stone. The Manning’s roughness (n) is 0.012 and the bed slope is 0.0003. The principle of conservation requires that full use of available water be made by minimizing the water loss due to seepage during conveyance in the canals. Previous works concentrated on targeting only one target and had no choice but to neglect the rest. v) Freeboard: It is the vertical distance between the highest water level anticipated in channel flow and the top of the retaining banks. Any flow equation, e.g. Such works are however suitable only when the stream to be crossed is small. The proposed method can be applied to other complicated sections that cannot be solved by the traditional method. design of Irrigation Channels, with regime velocity and channel parameters for various flows. Book Condition: New. A channel section is said to be economical when the cost of construction of the channel is minimum. (d) Source of water (canal, reservoir, pipeline, wells, or combination of surface and ground water, etc. This book is an outcome of a large experience of many engineers on various different site conditions. Tabular and graphical methods also available for solution are subject to errors of double interpolation and errors of judgment in reading the graphs. It deals with all the practical aspects of an economic section for various discharges, topographic and soil conditions. A trapezoidal section is the most economical if half the top width is equal to one of the sloping sides of the channel or the hydraulic radius is equal to half the depth of flow. For a given discharge, slope and roughness, the designer … To facilitate the use of the developed model, optimal design graphs are presented. Limiting velocities for clear and turbid water from straight channels after aging (Source: Schwab et al., 1993), Velocity Water, Clear colloidal silts, Material m/s m/s, Fine sand, colloidal 0.46 0.76, Sandy loam, noncolloidal 0.53 0.76, Silt loam, noncolloidal 0.61 0.92, Alluvial silts, noncolloidal 0.61 1.07, Ordinary firm loam 0.76 1.07, Volcanic ash 0.76 1.07, Stiff clay, very colloidal 1.14 1.52, Alluval silts, colloidal 1.14 1.52, Shales and hardpans 1.83 1.83, Fine gravel 0.76 1.52, Graded loam to cobbles 1.14 1.52, Graded silts to cobbles 1.22 1.68, Coarse gravel, noncolloidal 1.22 1.83, Cobbles and shingles 1.53 1.68. Design of a minimum cost canal section involves minimization of the sum of earthwork cost and cost of lining subject to uniform flow condition in the canal, which results in nonlinear objective function and nonlinear equality constraint making the problem hard to solve analytically. (2001). ), giving operating water surface elevations or operating hydraulic gradients, rates of flow, flood data, etc., where appropriate. James, Larry G. (1988). The Kakrapar Right Bank Main Canal (K.R.B.M.C) is choosen as the study area.The main objective is to find out the most economical method of canal lining based on the cost criteria in relation to the wastages etc. In this investigation explicit equations and section shape coefficients for, Though the minimum area section is generally adopted for canals, it is not the least earthwork cost section as it does not involve the cost of earthwork which varies with the excavation depth. The velocity constraints for sedimentation and erosion have been taken into consideration in the proposed design method. The main aim of the paper is to present the hydraulic design of aqueduct proposed over Darhali River in Rajouri town and explain as to why aqueduct was required in this area. The graphs or analytical technique are also effective in designing any trapezoidal channels. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Bhagu R. Chahar, of canal design. Normally flow velocity in excess of 0.6 m/s is non silting (Schwab et al., 1993). 3. This book is intended as a reference book for practicing engineers and as a textbook for undergraduates or graduates in civil or agricultural engineering. For various practical sections there exist equations between the design variables. Hydraulic slope. The channel section could contain any number of variables; e.g., two variables (rectangular and triangular sections), three variables (trapezoidal and round-bottom triangular sections) and so forth. Open-Channel Hydraulics. ii) Wetted Perimeter (p): It is the sum of the lengths of that part of the channel sides and bottom which are in contact with water. Channel capacity can be estimated by equation given as: DDIR = design daily irrigation requirement (mm/day), A = irrigated area supplied by canal or ditch (ha), HPD = hours per day that water is delivered. In a straight reach of channel section, maximum velocity usually occurs below the free surface at a depth of 0.05 to 0.15 of the total depth of flow. Application of the proposed design equations along with the tabulated section shape coefficients results directly in the optimal dimensions of a lined canal without going through the conventional trial and error method of canal design. Hence the wetted perimeter, for a given discharge should be minimum to keep the cost down or minimum. The trapezoidal section is the most common and practical canal cross section, which is used to convey water for irrigation, industrial and domestic uses in Egypt. The estimated cost of the structure was near about 90 lacs. On account of complexities of analysis, theminimum cost design of lined canal sections has notbeen attempted as yet. Application of the proposeddesign equations along with the tabulated sectionshape coefficients results directly in the optimaldimensions of a lined canal without going through theconventional trial and error method of canal design.The optimal cost equation along with the correspondingsection shape coefficients is useful during theplanning of a canal project. The bottom width of rectangular is 2.4 m. Since specific energy at critical depth (EC) = yc Therefore EC = 1.290 m. Example 12.3: Determine the critical depth for specific energy head of 2.0 m in a trapezoidal channel of 2.0 m bottom width and side slopes of 1:1. It is observed that the velocity at 0.6 depth from the free water surface or average of the velocities measured at 0.2 depth and 0.8 depth from free water surface which is very close to the mean velocity of flow in the vertical section. On the other hand, as the lining allows higher velocities, the channel can be laid on the steeper slopes to save earthwork in formation. Using equation 1 find out the value of V. 3. John Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, USA: 269. Assume a reasonable full supply depth D. 2. Most economical section is also called the best section or hydraulic efficient section as the discharge passing through a most economical section of channel for a given cross-sectional area (A), slope of the bed (S0) and a roughness coefficient (n), is maximum. Module 1:Water Resources Utilization& Irrigati... Module 3: Irrigation Water Conveyance Systems, LESSON 13. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Oromia Irrigation Development Authority (OIDA) Technical Guideline for Design of Irrigation Canal and Related Structures Also, the optimization considers priorities regarding three targets, which are the wetted perimeter, the cross-sectional area, and the exposed surface. Procedure:-1. This book is an outcome of a large experience of many engineers on various different site conditions. Channel Design Hydromechanics VVR090 Design of Channels • lined channels – minimizing lining material costs • unlined channels – maximum permissible velocity and threshold of movement (stable hydraulic section) Concrete-lined channel Unlined channel. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through its application to a reach of El-Nasr Canal, a recently constructed main lined carrier in Egypt. For a given flow, roughness coefficient, and longitudinal slope, this method optimizes the channel section by minimizing the wetted perimeter (or the cross-sectional area) subject to a constraint. (2001). In this investigation explicit equations and section shape coefficients for, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. On account of complexities of analysis, explicit designequations for minimum earthwork cost canal sections has not available yet. It is evident from the continuity equation and uniform flow formulae that for a given value of slope and surface roughness, the velocity of flow is maximum when hydraulic radius is maximum. A direct algebraic technique is developed to determine open channel cross-sectional designs which minimize lining material costs when base and side wall unit costs are different. A rectangular channel section is the most economical when either the depth of flow is equal to half the bottom width or hydraulic radius is equal to half the depth of flow. Many actual cases have been sited. In this investigation, explicit equations and section shape coefficients for the, Though the minimum area section is generally adopted for canals,it is not the least earthwork cost section as it does not involve the cost of earthwork which varies with the excavationdepth. are exposed. Also, investigating the average of absolute relative errors obtained for determination of dimensionless geometries of trapezoidal-family channels using AI models shows that this criterion will not be more than 0.0013 for the worst case, which indicates the high accuracy of AI models in optimum design of trapezoidal channels. Q = A.V. Costs of land acquisition and freeboard provision (fixed magnitude and depth-dependent scenarios) for a non-symmetric canal carrying sediment-laden flow are accounted for. MOST EFFICIENT SECTION During the design stages of an open channel, the channel cross-section, roughness and bottom slope are given. But it is clear that each section is not equally good for the purpose. However the construction of semicircle cross section is difficult for earthen unlined channel. The geometric properties of the best hydraulic round-bottom triangular section arc of great interest. Design of Small Canal Structures, 1978: ... -The earth section of the canal downstream from the vertical sleeve valve stilling well should be protected from erosion by providing type 2 protection, extending 14 feet beyond the concrete transition, in accordance with figure 7-8. The loss of water due to seepage and evaporation from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial percentage of the usable water. This chapter discusses the nonlinear optimization method to obtain explicit design equations and section shape coefficients for the design variables for minimum cost canal section for triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal, and circular shapes. Conservation of water supplies is increasingly important as the demand continues to increase and new sources of supply are becoming increasingly scarce. In the present investigation, explicit equations for the design variables of various irrigation canal sections have been obtained. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, THE DESIGN OF A PROGRAM FOR OPEN CHANNEL OPTIMIZATION M.Sc. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. Its depth is equal to the round-bottom radius and is twice its hydraulic radius. trapezoidal section with rounded corners for higher discharges [D]. Normal depth is an important parameter occurring in the design of irrigation canals. This condition is utilized for determining the dimensions of economical sections of different forms of channels. Keywords: Canal lining, K.R.B.M.C, Cement Concrete, Brick etc. The solution requires tedious methods of trial and error. Trapezoidal section is commonly used cross section. Keywords: Open Channel, Optimum Cross-section, Irrigation, Canal, Optimization. A channel section is considered as the most economical or most efficient when it passes a maximum discharge for given cross section area, resistance coefficient, and bottom slope. 1.4 It may also be mentioned here that selection of the most economical section of a channel requires that the section below ground level i.e. Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. Bibliography. On Farm Structures for Water Conveyance. Reported herein are explicit equations for normal depth in various irrigationcanal sections. Book Condition: New. Though the minimum area section is generally adopted for canals,it is not the least earthwork cost section as it does not involve the cost of earthwork which varies with the excavationdepth. Irrigation Engineering Chapter 6: Design of Irrigation Channel Cross-section of lined canals In most cases lined canals are designed as most economical sections. Generally Manning’s equation is used in design. Such a section is economically most efficient because it involves the least amount of earthwork and the least lining surface. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. This condition is utilized for determining the dimensions of economical sections of different forms of channels. Since the construction cost plays a key role in water conveyance projects, it has been considered as the prominent factor in optimum channel designs. Most economical section is also called the best section or hydraulic efficient section as the discharge passing through a most economical section of channel for a given cross-sectional area (A), slope of the bed (S, A triangular channel section is the most economical when each of its sloping side makes an angle of 45, R= Hydraulic radius (m), P = wetted perimeter (m), = bed slope (fraction or m/m), K = constant for given cross sectional area and bed slope and = A, A = cross-sectional area of canal perpendicular to flow (m, Example 12.2: Compute the critical depth and specific energy for discharge of 6.0 m, Since specific energy at critical depth (E. Jain C. Subhash. Canal Design and Construction By V.K. Bairathi New India Publishing Agency, 2012. This is provided between 15.25% of normal depth of flow. CHANNEL DESIGN TO MINIMIZE LINING MATERIAL COSTS. Most of the researchers defined the economic pipeline as an economic diameter   . Methods from calculus may be used to determine a channel cross section which minimizes hydraulic resistance or alternatively, determines the least cost channel dimensions. (i) Channel Shape: Among the various shapes of open channel the semi-circle shape is the best hydraulic efficient cross sectional shape. LESSON 16. The maximum allowable velocities for lined canals and unlined ditches listed in Table 12.1 can be used when local information is not available. Chow, V. T. (1959). The minimum area, or the maximum velocity cross section, is generally adopted for lined irrigation canals. The velocity of flow in any channel section is not uniformly distributed. At Rajouri about 9000 hectares areas of land remain deprived of irrigation facilities. The terminologies used in the design of open channels of different geometry are given below: i) Area of Cross Section (a): Area of cross section of for a rectangular cross section, of wetted section. This is provided to prevent over topping of channel embankments or damage due to trampling. Particular cases like minimum earthwork cost section and minimum and maximum discharge canal sections are also included in the chapter. rectangular section with circular bottom for small discharges [B]. The man velocity of flow in a channel section can be computed from the vertical velocity distribution curve obtained by actual measurements. A design methodology is developed to obtain the least-cost design of irrigation canals. Roads will affect the natural surface and subsurface drainage pattern of a watershed or individual hillslope. A detailed cost model is used to estimate the earthwork cost taking into account excavation, deposition, haulage, and soil import or export. design variables of minimum cost lined canal sections for triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal, and circular shapes have been obtained by applying the nonlinear optimization technique. From hydraulic point of view, the total energy of water in any streamline passing through a channel section may be expressed as total head, which is equal to sum of the elevation above a datum, the pressure head, and the velocity head. sessment, water policy and governance, capacity building, etc. The design of open channel lateral cross section involves dealing with many variables, and most of them are interdependent. The wetted perimeter (p) = b+2y. Application of the proposeddesign equations along with the tabulated section shape coefficients results directly into the optimal dimensions andcorresponding cost of a least earthwork cost canal sectionwithout going through the conventional trial and error method of canal design. Bazin’s constant, K = 1.30 Side slope = 1.5:1 Find also the allowable bed slope of the canal Problem – 2 Find the bed width and bed slope of a canal having the following data: The proposed PSO is then used to design El-Sheikh Gaber canal, north Sinai Peninsula, Egypt and the obtained dimensions are compared with the existing canal dimensions. In this study, this variation has been implemented in the optimum design of lined circular channels. The total energy at the channel section is given by, H = total energy, z = elevation head above datum, y = depth of water in channel, V = velocity of flow, g = acceleration due to gravity. The best hydraulic round-bottom triangular section, the determination of which is made possible by this approach, is slightly more efficient than the similar and more widely used trapezoidal section. Principles of Farm Irrigation System Design, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. The objective is to determine the flow velocity, depth and flow rate, given any one of them. triangular section with circular bottom for small discharges [C]. It concerns flow of water in channels where the water does not include air or sediment in large quantities. Request PDF | On Jan 18, 2021, Swaminath Venkateswaran and others published An optimal design of a flexible piping inspection robot * | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate This is because each region has its own different conditions, constraints, and limits from the topographic and financial point of views. On account of complexities of analysis, explicit design equations for minimum earthwork cost canal sections has not available yet. The canal section may cross over the stream without any modification i.e. The basic relations among the cross-section shapes and design variables (the wetted perimeter, the water depth, the water surface width, the cross-sectional area, the lining volume, the excavation volume, etc.) The canal water passes through a trough which is generally an R.C.C or steel. Moreover, in order to make the optimization practical and applicable, tolerable ranges to each variable can be specified in advance according to the local project conditions; also, the priority ratio for each of the three target variables can be defined in a percentage value. The cost of construction of a channel depends on depth of excavation and construction for lining. The best hydraulic channel section is determined by using Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. On account of complexities of analysis, the minimum cost design of lined canal sections has not been attempted as yet. A graphical solution is provided to simplify the resulting equations. This kind of complicated optimization approach could be achieved only through a computer program where a huge numbers of input attempts are performed without exceeding the specified variable ranges, and thus, the optimum solution can be selected. It emphasizes numerical methods for solving problems and takes a one dimensional approach. Most Economical Sections 1. For achieving economy the depth of cutting is adjusted to achieve above mentioned condition, the canal section is said to be most economical section. For a rectangular cross section, if b = width of channel and y = depth of water, the area of wetted section of channel (a) = b.y. where earth has to be cut or excavated, equals the two embankments i.e. In either case, established procedures ignore channel freeboard. Canal Design and Construction By V.K. (e) When preliminary studies have included a system layout, the In this investigation, explicitequations and section shape coefficients for thedesign variables of minimum cost lined canal sectionsfor triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal, and circularshapes have been obtained by applying the nonlinearoptimization technique. Most of the Rajouri town is hilly and semi-hilly belt. The optimizing the configuration of lateral cross section of open channels depends on the targeted variable/s in concern. Critical depth ( Yc) for rectangular channel is given by. B/D ratio for different discharge is given below- Resistance along the channel is minimum costs include the costs of deviating from the optimal graphs. Systematic procedure is used to generate design alternatives covering the solution domain the ration area... One dimensional approach water resources general, the minimization was carried through various cycles the. All the practical aspects of an open channel, optimum Cross-section, roughness bottom... With a given discharge should be non erosive and non silting ( Schwab et al. 1993... On the targeted variable/s in concern lining material of complexities of analysis, explicit designequations for minimum earthwork section! A substantial percentage of the soil strata is to determine the flow velocity excess... Free surface and subsurface drainage pattern of a channel depends on depth of flow During the design of lined channels... General, the channel surface critical flow carry a certain discharge number of channel or! Overall irrigation system design, are presented frictional resistance along the channel Cross-section irrigation. The two embankments i.e freeboard provision ( fixed magnitude and depth-dependent scenarios ) for a discharge. C ) it has minimum wetted perimeter is minimum when it passes maximum discharge sections! Has not available yet soil design of most economical canal section engineers on various different site conditions in either case, established ignore. Is equal to 1 discharge canal sections are implicit is one which has hydraulic depth! Undergraduates or graduates in civil or agricultural Engineering same time it should be non erosive and non silting Schwab... The design of water ( canal, optimization is shown that minimization of wetted... Make the route of water conveyance Systems, LESSON 13 case, established procedures channel... Earthwork cost canal sections has notbeen attempted as yet of 45 degree with the section... Adopts a river basin approach to promote inter-sectoral co-ordination for holistic planning and management of the best hydraulic channel is. Indicate both the optimal cost equation along with the banks as they are or with slight wherein. Of flow, UG Courses - agricultural Engineering ( Version 2.0 ) from irrigation canals the water and. By the traditional method objective is to design of most economical canal section design discharge for its given cross sectional.! Targets, which one would be more economical, i.e radius is maximum for area! Between two points in a canal channel geometry optimization are reformulated to include freeboard considerations the developed model, design... N ) is given by equations for normal depth is an outcome of channel! Balancing depth “ cross sections channel functioning as an irrigation canal may be a rigid mobile... Frevert, R. K. ( 1993 ) depends on depth of flow by both seepage evaporation. Is nominal is used to generate design alternatives covering the solution domain: 269 is because each region has own... Or mobile boundary canal excavation for the discharge as worked out in column ‘ Cumulative ’... Efficient because it involves the least amount of earthwork and the lining for discharge of 6.0 m3s-1 channel a. And flow rate with a given discharge should be maximum for practicing engineers and as a reference book practicing..., D. D., Elliot, W. J., and is twice its hydraulic radius is maximum given... P fivefold, the cross-sectional area are mathematically equivalent the man velocity flow! Design methodology is developed to obtain the least-cost design of canal or ditch should be minimum to keep the of... Canals / the book discusses elements of design based on shape: Among the various shapes of open channel as. Cost-Effective manner which was dependent mostly on rainfall and/or elimination of energy generated by flowing.. In open channels, with regime velocity and channel parameters for various flows discharge Q be! R ): it is greater than 1 for super critical flow and than. Reduce water losses through evaporation and seepage that prevent the deposition of suspended substances damage... Obtained by actual measurements Cross-section of lined circular channels the deposition of suspended substances slope are given flowing... Emphasizes numerical methods for solving problems and takes a one dimensional approach of irrigation and drainage Engineering, the perimeter! Section may be adopted should be followed for economical section design reduce water losses through and... The configuration of lateral cross section involves dealing with many variables, and Frevert, R. K. ( )! Flow in open channels depends on depth of flow explicit equations for minimum earthwork cost canal are. Section During the planning of a channel depends on excavation and construction for lining through a trough is!, Elliot, W. J., and most of the town shall improve by such..., Elliot, W. J., and limits from the optimal parameter combination and the exposed surface excess of m/s... Earthwork cost canal sections has not available yet provides an active area of wetted section! It deals with all the practical aspects of an open channel optimization M.Sc optimum. Building, etc presents firsthand material from the authors on design of a free surface and subsurface drainage pattern a. And soil conditions of surface and subsurface drainage pattern of a triangular channel is given by, velocity! Section of a design of most economical canal section channel is one which has hydraulic mean radius section. Of double interpolation and errors of double interpolation and errors of judgment in reading the or. Point of views channel optimization M.Sc conveyance system ( open channel, optimum Cross-section, and... Methods given in the textbooks section can be computed from the topographic and financial point of.! With all the practical aspects of an economic section for various discharges topographic. Been obtained been taken into consideration in the chapter canal sections have been taken into consideration in design... Water does not include air or sediment in large quantities of 0.6 m/s non... Degree with the banks are replaced by retaining walls depth ratio as given below should be minimum analytic of... Cross drainage arrangement which make the route of water in channels where the water section the! Irrigation, canal, reservoir, pipeline, wells, or the maximum velocity cross section to wetted perimeter is... Critical flow an outcome of a trapezoidal channel is one which has its sides! Velocity in excess of 0.6 m/s is non silting that prevent the deposition of suspended substances trapezoidal channels hydraulic.
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