the counties of Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Shropshire), sword dancing from Yorkshire or the North East, as well as winter time traditions such as Molly dancing from the Fens and Mumming plays. The name Morris dance is sometimes loosely applied to sword dances in which a group of men weave their swords into intricate patterns. However, with the rise of the Black Lives Matter movement, we can no longer permit the use of casual blackface in Morris Dancing. From what I can remember, there were only male dancers and they were performing rhythmic steps and using sticks in a kind of mock fight. Traditional scholarship on this custom has been based on the assumption that morris dancing is one of the pagan calendar rituals, a preconception held by many folklorists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The traditionally male pastime of morris dancing has a secret history involving a suffragette and the slum girls of Victorian London. Another theory has it that Morris dancing was in fact only invented recently by a certain Cecil Sharp, Esq., on Boxing Day 1899, when he came across a group of itinerant quarrymen, and taught them a some simple exercises to help them keep warm. The Finns are part of Foxs Morris, a mixed group (or side) of dancers founded in 1999 in the Worcestershire village of Cookley. Dated around 1620, a hundred years after Martin Luther nailed his protest to a church door in Wittenburg. Alternatively, some have suggested that Morris Dancing has its origins in 16th century European courts. Ancient Origins articles related to Morris Dancing in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. Gallop, Rodney. It is danced with wooden or metal swords. The earliest authenticated references to Morris Dancing date back to 1448. The dance is named after Mrs Clarke from Ranby near Retford who in an essay she wrote about her childhood for a competition described morris dancers from her village dancing at Christmas time in the eighteen nineties. The History of Morris Dancing, 1438-1750 (eBook) : Forrest, John : Univ of Toronto PrCareful, detailed, and encyclopedic, The History of Morris Dancing, 1458-1750 is an essential reference work for specialists in English drama and social historians of the period.Morris dancing, one of the more peculiar of the English folk customs, has been greatly misunderstood. Your email address will not be published. The sense of community is great and also it is interesting to know the history of such dances. Dancers would blacken their faces with soot so they would not be recognised by the local priest, and would resemble "Moors". Sponsler, Claire. I have included links to the morris dance associations and local groups (only a handful of the many that exist), a list of academic articles and Facebook pages dedicated to this type of dance. Others think that crusaders brought it to England after the Moorish conquests. A discussion of the origin and history of morris dancing; Morris map; The Ladies Go Dancing at Whitsun. Border Morris is a collection of individual local dances from villages along the English side of the Wales–England border in the counties of Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Shropshire. Music. Folk dancing at the time was not common in northern Europe, and the fact that the north embraced the dances and copied them right down to the blackface is the antithesis of racism, even to this day. Compare sword dance. I was impressed especially because in Italy most people have been distancing themselves from their own traditional dances, almost being ashamed of them. If we stick to the facts, it is perhaps easier to work backwards. Still. An ancient tradition is ending next year in the town of Shrewsbury, in Shropshire, England, after political pressure forced local folk festival organizers to stop booking an act that a social justice group considers racist. Twitter Facebook Google+. It is now accepted that Border Morris, which comes from the English counties along the border between England and Wales, is in fact the oldest form. It was (and is) most frequently practiced through the midlands and in the counties along the Welsh border, but it has connections to folk dances throughout Western Europe. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This dance genre is choreographed and it follows specific patterns. There is a lot of hogwash being circulated on the subject of the “origins” of morris dancing — especially by morris dancers (such as me). Morris dance, also spelled Moresgue, Morrice, Morisque, or Morrisk, ritual folk dance performed in rural England by groups of specially chosen and trained men; less specifically, a variety of related customs, such as mumming, as well as some popular entertainments derived from them. “George Butterworth’s Folk Music Manuscripts.” Folk Music Journal (1976): 99-113. The Harrison House, which is located at 1001 F. Street, is shown Wednesday, March 12, 2014, in Las Vegas. Enormous amounts of speculation based on little or no data, faulty assumptions, wishful thinking, and… over the ensuing months. Shoes also vary, with some groups wearing clogs others boots. North West Morris is more military and professional in style. It is based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures by a group of dancers, usually wearing bell pads on their shins. Notable examples are the Perchten dancer-masqueraders of Austria, the ritual dances such as the moriscas (or moriscos), santiagos, and matachinas of the Mediterranean and Latin America, and the călușari of Romania. What’s known about the earliest morris in Europe? The name Morris is also associated with groups of mummers who act, rather than dance, the death-and-survival rite at the turn of the year. Welsh Border Morris – Group of Men performing Welsh border style. So first, the present and latter part of the 20th century. The wide distribution of such dances suggests an ancient Indo-European origin. Careful, detailed, and encyclopedic, The History of Morris Dancing, 1458-1750 is an essential reference work for specialists in English drama and social historians of the period. There is little historical information about the origins of Morris Dancing. The earliest known and surviving English written mention of Morris dancing is dated to 1448, and records the payment of seven shillings to Morris dancers by the Goldsmiths' Company in London. Throughout history, the Morris seems to have been common. Hi Ann, thank you for your comment. There is a rhythmic stamping of the feet and dancers can use props such as wooden sticks, swords, handkerchiefs and bells attached to their shins that mark the rhythm. Nicol, E. J. History and the Morris Dance: A Look at Morris Dancing from Its Earliest Days Until 1850, Don't Panic! Or do they? It is also the simplest and most violent, involving loud yells and beating the hell out of each other with stout sticks. This is not to say that some scholars have not attempted to answer the questions. Hacker. Morris dance is characterized by energetic stepping and skipping, as well as the use of bells, handkerchiefs, sticks, swords, and the occasional beast. Learn more. There are several thoughts to the origins of Morris Dancing. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. How nice to read an enthusiastic and well-written piece about morris dancing! The term entered English via Flemish mooriske danse. They are not Morris dancers but their origins are just as unclear and some suggest they may have had a similar function in the unrecorded past. Its performers usually blacken their faces. Molly dancing is a style that comes from Cambridgeshire. I’ve danced morris and country dances, played in pubs and bands, sung and taught in towns and villages across England. Not long after, men groups also started and, since then, morris dancing experts have been disputing over whether morris dance should only be performed by men or by both genders. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/art/Morris-dance, Morris dance - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Music. Including this. However, recent research has revealed the true origins of the Morris dance. My music. In the 1840s, the fiddle was introduced, becoming the main instrument. Some like to believe that it has evolved from Druidic springtime rites. “Writing the Unwritten: Morris Dance and the Study of Medieval Theatre.” Theatre Survey 38.01 (1997): 73-95. Dawney, Michael. Today and for several decades, Morris Dancing is flourishing. The group calls itself Fairness, Respect, Equality Shropshire (FRESh), and their complaint against the annual Shrewsbury Folk Festival is that the age-old … One of the reasons why this dance is connected to the word Moorish, maybe because of the fact that most dancers originally used to paint their faces in black (today only some still do and the tradition of blackening their faces may originate as a form of disguise for dancers or it could have been a reference to miners in later times). Fortunately, though, not everybody in England shares this feeling because there are many people who practice and love morris dance and have formed groups to continue this tradition. A common feature of many of them is that of a group of dancing men attendant on a pagan god who celebrates his revival after death. I was impressed by the fact that English people seemed to embrace their traditions and their heritage, of which morris dance is clearly a part, being a form of embodied heritage. The Finns are part of Foxs Morris, a mixed group (or side) of dancers founded in 1999 in the Worcestershire village of Cookley. I too don’t understand why so many English people find this rich folk tradition embarrassing, and likewise the folk dances that many people enjoy at community events: my Scottish, Irish and Welsh friends are keen on theirs. It was a very good day, but the thing that I remember most vividly is the morris dancers. Longsword dancing is from Yorkshire and South Durham. However, colours and styles really do vary between different groups and traditions. Belly Dance Around the World by Caitlin E. McDonald – Book Review, How to Draw and Paint Dancers in Movement. This is a great chance to see the funloving and quite eccentric side of British culture (a far cry from the stiff upper lip stereotype that some people outside the UK associate with being British). The first is an inventory at Caistor Castle, Norfolk which mentions a tapestry (no longer in existence) depicting a “morysk Daunce”. It was imported from village festivities into popular entertainment after the invention of the court masque by Henry VIII. Writer. Art and Drawing Dance, Tahia Carioca Bint al Balad Laban Movements Analysis (5.3.1), You Asked Aunt Rocky – BellyDance Book Review, Dance and Cultural Memory: Interpreting Fin de Siècle Performances of’Olde England, he literary history of the English Morris Dance, Writing the Unwritten: Morris Dance and the Study of Medieval Theatre. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The revival of Morris Dancing is usually attributed to the English folk song collector Cecil Sharp who, incidentally, lived in Adelaide, South Australia, for part of his youth. It may well have its roots in rites celebrating fertility and the coming of spring. These are typically morris dancers from the “border morris” tradition – a style which came from the counties lining the English-Welsh border: Herefordshire, Worcestershire … The music that the dance comes with is very lively and instruments often used are accordions, drums and fiddles. But women and Morris dancing have been entwined for 500 years from providing the earliest known evidence for the morris in old records, to accounts of women dancing Morris in Shakespeare’s time, to the revival of the Morris at the early part of the 20 th century, the research to establish its most likely origin, and then the explosion of women dancing in the 1970’s onwards. Barker, E. Phillips. So, when I spoke to my colleagues, I was saddened to find out that most of them were dismissive of morris dance and almost embarrassed by it (men in particular). Usually the Morris is a longways dance performed by six men with accompanying traditional characters (as in the Cotswold Morris), or by ten (Lancashire Morris). There are several thoughts to the origins of Morris Dancing. The modern spelling Morris-dance first appears in the 17th century. The Exeter Morris Men performing a Morris dance, Wells, England. The name is first recorded in English in the mid-15th century as Morisk dance, moreys daunce, morisse daunce, i.e. The rain, which I have become accustomed to since moving to England, held off and this certainly helped given that the brave organizers had planned most activities out in the open air. Hence, many Italian traditional dances have been lost (this trend though has hopefully started to change and the revival of pizzica, a dance genre from the region of Puglia, seems to be an example of this changing trend). comments powered by Disqus. Those few who favour the idea of North African origins to Morris suggest that face blacking may have been a crude attempt to simply imitate the skin colour of the Saracen foe. Certainly in the very late middle ages, Morris dancers were sometimes referred to as morisco dancers, but it is pretty certain that, whatever the origin … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. John Forrest has carefully analysed the wealth of evidence to show that morris dancing does not in fact have pagan or ancient origins. “Some Notes on the Morris Dance.” The English Folk-Dance Society’s Journal (1914): 6-8. Five hundred years ago it was a dance for one or two; today it is for four or more. The few solo Morris dances are called Morris jigs; an example is the Shepherds’ Hey. The name may refer to the possibility of the form of dancing coming to England from the Moors of North Africa; or it may have been called 'Moor-ish' simply because the dancers sometimes painted their faces black, and people compared this to the dark-skinned Moors. I have never tried Morris dancing but I have tried local forms of step dancing in England, such as Dartmoor step dancing. Nowadays only some groups paint their faces in black. Morris dancing, one of the more peculiar of the English folk customs, has been greatly misunderstood. This continued to be practised for many ages, till it became corrupted by figures and gesticulations foreign to its original purpose. Seen as a descendant of pagan folk ritual, the tradition of morris dancing has been based on calendar customs and distorted by preconceptions imposed on it by the folklorists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. I have always been mystified by the numerous explanations of the origin of the word "Morris". Learn how your comment data is processed. There are many theories and few hard facts that tell us of the history of Morris Dancing. After Prohibition was repealed that year, the county agreed to grant it a license to serve only beer. Morris dances. This dance was danced with ‘flags'. Often the dancers wear white clothes and dance with bells fastened to the legs or body. Address: 11 Hermitage Street, Crewkerne, Somerset TA18 8ES, England. According to some, morris dance is connected to dance traditions from druidic times, for others it comes from court dances which were first performed in Italy and were then embraced in English courts. Cawte, Edwin Christopher. No, he says: Morris dancing is pure entertainment. Finn is … There is a lot of hogwash being circulated on the subject of the "origins" of morris dancing — especially by morris dancers (such as me). This gave rise to "Moorish Men" or "Moorish dauncers" and hence to Morris. Being originally from Italy, this festival was a real cultural experience for me and even if you are British, it is still a sight and festival that has to be seen and experienced. In some cases, he may dominate the rite; in others—as in many English Morris dances—the young men in the corps d’élite may dominate, with the animal-man and other dramatic characters either relegated to the subsidiary role of comics or omitted. Morris dancing is a surviving tradition associated with seasonal displays, usually part of celebrations designed to celebrate the coming of spring, or the turn of the year in the depths of the gloomy winter. In January 1933, the county granted Morris' Red Rooster what it called a dance hall license. It was the first time I saw any kind of British folkloric dance and I was impressed. Finn is the side’s secretary and unofficial photographer. Our dancers perform steps collected from across … The comic characters who often accompany Morris Dancers - the Fool, the Moll (a man dressed as a woman), the Hobby Horse - all have their origins in primitive beliefs and practices although they seem to come straight out of a modern circus or pantomime. During this time, there was a form of dance commonly performed in the Continental courts in which the dancers would dress in elaborate costumes with pendant sleeves and bells attached to them. Clog dance: we sometimes include in our performances some step clog dancing (percussive dance performed in wooden-soled shoes and the forerunner of tap dance), as our research has found historical references to it alongside morris dance in rural Lincolnshire and to "hornpipes" being danced in Nottinghamshire, including in Retford and Worksop. In the 1880s, the melodeon and anglo-concertina became widely used. However, this is not definitely the case. Whatever its origins, morris dance became very popular with the working classes and in rural areas from the 17th century (while it was previously mainly documented in court settings). Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. The English folk tradition of Morris dancing dates back centuries. “Molly Dancing in East Anglia.” Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society (1933): 79-85. The Morris world encompasses several different types of performance style, which are recognised mostly from their geographic origin, such as the Cotswolds, the North West, the Welsh borders (i.e. I myself grew up watching Morris Dancers at many local events, especially at Christmas. “The Origins of the Morris Dance.” Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society (1934): 122-129. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. “The earliest reference to the morris dance?.” Folk Music Journal (2004): 513-515. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Enormous amounts of speculation based on little or no data, faulty assumptions, wishful thinking, and bad logic. There, the central figure, “Oss Oss,” is a witch doctor disguised as a horse and wearing a medicine mask. Omissions? Britannia Coconut Dancers. One … The first thing to remember about this subject is, simply: Don't believe anything. It was (and is) most frequently practiced through the midlands and in the counties along the Welsh border, but it has connections to folk dances throughout Western Europe. Certainly it has medieval origins, and a century ago almost every Gloucestershire village fielded a team (the name may be a … “The literary history of the English Morris Dance.” Folklore 94.2 (1983): 219-228. Some like to believe that it has evolved from Druidic springtime rites. Without the blackface still used by Morris dancers today the very origins of the dance may have gone missing. The word Morris apparently derived from “morisco,” meaning “Moorish.” Cecil Sharp, whose collecting of Morris dances preserved many from extinction, suggested that it might have arisen from the dancers’ blacking their faces as part of the necessary ritual disguise. “Dance and Cultural Memory: Interpreting Fin de Siècle Performances of’Olde England‘.” Dance Research 31.1 (2013): 29-66. The second, more intriguing, reference is to a payment made to “the Morrysh daunsers” for a performance on 19th May 1448. The traditionally male pastime of morris dancing has a secret history involving a suffragette and the slum girls of Victorian London. Rapper, from Northumberland and County Durham, is danced with short swords. There is little historical information about the origins of Morris Dancing. The name may refer to the possibility of the form of dancing coming to England from the Moors of North Africa; or it may have been called 'Moor-ish' simply because the dancers sometimes painted their faces black, and people compared this to the dark-skinned Moors. "Moorish dance". According to some, morris dance is connected to dance traditions from druidic times, for others it comes from court dances which were first performed in Italy and were then embraced in English courts. 'as with many folk customs, the origins are hidden in the mists of time and coloured by later perceptions, which may or may not have been correct', Alun Howkins. 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